Glossary

  • A

 

    • Adam Smyth (1740-1785 m. Margaret)- Justice of the Peace, Botetourt County, 1776; Judge of paper currency in circulation, Botetourt County, 1778. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 319.

 

    • Administrator- A person assigned by a court to manage the estate of a deceased individual.

 

 

  • B

 

 

    • Beverley Randolph (1754-1797 m. Martha 1785)- Lieutenant Governor under 6th Governor of Virginia, Patrick Henry.  Later served as the 8th Governor of Virginia.

 

 

 

  • C

 

    • Capital Crimes- crimes for slaves would include offenses beyond those considered capital crimes for whites.

 

    • Chancery- A court of equity

 

    • Comms.- Abbreviation for Commission

 

    • Council of State- Council of State, or the Governor’s Council, consisted of about a dozen of colonial Virginia’s wealthiest and most prominent men.

 

    • Crows Warehouse- Crows Warehouse was a tobacco warehouse owned by the Crow family in the 1700’s. Related Families of Botetourt County, Virginia pg. 12c

 

    • Current money- money in the common business transactions, and is the common medium in barter and trade

 

 

  • E

 

 

    • Esq.- Abbreviation for Esquire

 

 

  • F

 

    • Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel (also Michaelmas): a festival celebrated on September 29th in honor of Saint Michael the Archangel.

 

    • Fodder- food, especially dried hay or feed, for cattle and other livestock

 

 

  • G

 

    • Gaming- Gambling

 

 

    • George Skillern (1728-1806 m. Elizabeth 1763)- Prominent land owner in Botetourt County; Justice of the Peace, Augusta County, 1764; Justice of the Peace, Botetourt County, 1770; Sheriff, Botetourt County, 1776; Delegate representing Botetourt County in the General Assembly of Virginia, 1779. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 317.

 

 

  • H

 

    • Heir at law- (property law), the person entitled to succeed to the real property of a person who dies intestate
    • Henry Lee (1756-1818 m. Matilda 1782, m. Anne 1793)- 9th Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia; Father of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. First wife, Matilda, died in 1790 after giving birth to his first three children; second wife, Anne, gave birth to Robert E. Lee.

 

    • Henry Walker (d. 1803 m. Martha Woods).

 

    • Hereditaments- any item of property, either a corporeal hereditament (such as land or a building) or an incorporeal hereditament (such as a rent or a right of way).

 

 

  • I

 

    • In capite- tenure by which land was held immediately of the Crown

 

    • Inspector of Tobacco- The position of “Inspector of tobacco” originated in the early 1700’s, when England decreed that the tobacco must be inspected so that only the finest leaves could come through. Two inspectors were appointed per warehouse. In 1735, the law was renewed, and lasted through October of 1775, when it expired. It was reinstated a year later under the Commonwealth http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Tobacco_in_Colonial_Virginia

 

 

  • J

 

    • James Barnett (1736-1808 m. Rachael)- Delegate representing Botetourt County in the General Assembly of Virginia, 1788. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 438.

 

    • James Breckenridge (1763-1833)- Virginia lawyer and politician, member of the US House of Representatives from Virginia’s 5th district (1809-1817).

 

    • John Hawkins (1766-1820 m. Sarah 1793)- Complicated, because there were two John Hawkins in the time, unsure of which one this document refers to.
    • John Lewis- Capitain in the military during American Revolution; one of the most distinguished families in the State at the time.

 

    • John Murray, fourth earl of Dunmore (1730-1908)- served as Governor of Virginia from 1771 to 1775.

 

    • John Smyth (m. Mary Smyth)- Commissioner of the revenue tax in 1794.

 

 

      • Justice of the Peace- a judicial officer with limited power whose duties may include hearing cases that involve civil controversies, appointed by the governor.

 

  • K

 

    • King George the Third (1738-1820)- King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 1760-1820.

 

      • Knight service- A tenure of lands held by knights on condition of performing military service.

 

  • L

 

      • Lawful money- any money whether coin or currency that may by the laws of a country be circulated as a medium of exchange.

 

  • M

 

    • Martin McFarren- Delegate representing Botetourt County in the General Assembly of Virginia, 1786-92, 1794, 1802-1805; Representative from Botetourt County in the Virginia Convention of 1788. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 324, 438.

 

    • Matthew Wilson (1766-1834 m. Elizabeth 1768)- Sheriff, Botetourt County, 1788-92. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 457.

 

      • Moiety- a part or portion, especially a lesser share

 

  • O

 

    • Ordinary- Tavern or Public House

 

      • Oyer and Terminer- literally means “to hear and to determine.” The commissioners were commanded to make diligent inquiry into felonies and misdemeanors committed in the counties specified in the commission and to hear and determine the same according to law. In this case, oyer and terminer courts heard criminal cases against slaves. Arson, burglary, murder were some of the crimes of slaves tried in the court of oyer and terminer.

 

  • P

 

    • Pasturage- and used for pasture

 

    • Patrick Lockhart (1733-1809 m. Mary 1770)- Prominent land and business owner in Fincastle, Virginia; Delegate representing Botetourt County in the first General Assembly of Virginia; Attained rank of Major during the Revolutionary War. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 301.

 

    • Per annum- means yearly

 

    • Pole – a surveyors tool and unit of length eual to 5 ½ yards, 16 ½ fee, 1/320 of a statute mile or one-fourth of a surveyor’s chain and 5.0292 meters. An acre is 100 square poles.  It was common to see an area referred to as “87 poles, 112 poles”, meaning 87 and 112/160 acres.

 

      • Provender- dry food for domestic animals

 

  • R

 

    • Robert Harvey (1756-1831 m. Martha 1777)- Prominent land and business owner in Botetourt County; Founded Cloverdale Furnace, namesake of the town of Cloverdale, Virginia. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 322.

 

 

  • S

 

    • Samuel Todd (1739-1812 m. Jane)- Commissioner of the Revenue, Botetourt County, 1783; Sheriff, Botetourt County, 1788-90. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 453, 457.

 

    • Sheriff- In the 1700s, sheriffs would maintain jails and workhouses, enforcement of the law, maintenance of the peace and handling criminals throughout the judicial process. Sheriffs were appointed by the Governor, not elected by citizens.

 

    • Soccage (also socage)- a tenure of land held by the tenant in performance of specified services or by payment of rent, and not requiring military service.

 

      • Surety- money given to support an undertaking that someone will perform a duty, pay their debts, etc.; a guarantee.

 

  • T

 

    • Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)- 2nd governor of Virginia, 3rd president of the United States.

 

    • Thomas Lewis (1718-1790 m. Jane 1749)- Delegate representing Botetourt County in the General Assembly of Virginia, 1782. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 439.

 

      • Thomas Rowland (1741-1814 m. Mary 1768)- Lieutenant Colonel in the Botetourt Militia. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 328.

 

  • W

 

 

    • William Fleming (Feb. 18, 1729-Aug. 05, 1795 m. Anne Christian)- Born in Jedburgh, Scotland; Joined George Washington’s regiment, August, 1755; Botetourt County Lieutenant, 1776; Fleming’s home was called “Belmont.” https://www.nga.org/  

 

    • William Neeley (1749-1827)- Justice of the Peace, Botetourt County, 1779. Robert Douthat Stoner, A Seed-Bed of the Republic, 1962, 325.

 

    • William Ward- Sergeant in Captain Dickinson’s company of Rangers that was sent to aid the settlers of the New River Valley after the massacre at Smithfield Plantation in Blacksburg by local Native Americans, from 1756-1757. His name is on a plaque at Lee Chapel at Washington and Lee University for his contributions. Ward served as a Justice of the Peace in Botetourt from 1779-1785. In 1782 he was appointed Commissioner of Land Tax. https://wardfamilyblogs.wordpress.com/louis-story/william-ward-of-augusta-and-botetourt-counties-virginia/

 

 

  • X

 

    • xd Recorded and xd – Examined Recorded and Examined
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